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This paper presents a review of current studies documenting the benefits and detriments the Wii could have on adults aged 60 years and. Record - PDF | This paper describes a new project aimed at investigating the The project builds on existing research that demonstrates that video.
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Nintendo Network. Was originally scheduled to open at the end of December ,  but did not until June Redmond, Washington , US. It was found that the group playing Wii had a decrease in loneliness whereas the group watching television had an increase in loneliness by the end of week Playing Wii has also been found to improve the physical activity levels and psychological quality of life when compared to a control group [ 21 ]. Analyses of the group interview data indicated that residents found the games fun and provided an avenue for greater socialization. By week 8, residents' overall quality of life had improved in the domains of psychological and physical health [ 21 ].
In another study using the Wii, participants were divided into three groups, playing Wii with others, playing Wii alone, and a control group who played board games [ 22 ].
At the conclusion of the study, the residents in the Wii conditions scored significantly higher on self-esteem, physical activity, and positive affect, and significantly lower on loneliness when compared to the control group. No difference was found between the groups playing Wii alone and with others [ 22 ]. No previous study has systematically measured the effect of using the Wii on depression, sense of belonging, or social support.
Social interaction has been measured previously at the conclusion of the intervention, but not throughout the intervention [ 21 ]. Depression is a significant issue for residents' well-being, along with a lack of social support and belonging within care facilities. Playing the Wii console is a potential intervention to increase the overall psychological health of residents.
Further, no study has utilised a control group to test the use of the Wii console in care facilities measuring depression, social support, and a sense of belonging as the outcome measures. Participants will be allocated to either an intervention group that involves playing Wii bowling with other residents or to a control group who do not participate. The primary aim of the study is to examine the effectiveness of the Wii to decrease the level of depressive symptoms and increase a sense of belonging, increase self-reported mood, and increase social support at post-intervention and 2-month follow up.
A secondary aim of the intervention is to increase the level of social interaction between participants. This trial will utilise a mixed-methods, quasi-experimental trial design where an active Wii intervention will be compared to a control wait condition utilising aged care facility residents.
All participants meeting inclusion criteria will be assessed using paper and pen surveys at pre-intervention week 0 , post-intervention week 6 , and 2-month follow up week Qualitative interval analysis will also be conducted throughout the intervention weeks 1, 3 and 6. The aged care facilities for both the control and intervention group will be provided with the Wii and instructions for use to encourage free play after week 6 Fig.
Recruitment began on 25 November and continued until November Participants will be recruited from their place of residence with the approval of the aged care facility manager. Four aged care facilities will be sought for participation. For this research, participants will be excluded if they received a score of 20 or less on the SLUMS exam indicating the presence of dementia or severe cognitive impairment [ 24 ].
These exclusion criteria are based on previous research and on the safety precautions provided in the instruction manual from the Wii. Written consent will be gained from both the participants and from the aged care facility manager.
Wii bowling has been selected as research shows that with older populations it is most popular Wii game and the easiest to learn [ 17 ] over the relatively short trial period. It is expected that residents will be able to easily master the game play to allow for social interaction to occur between residents. Each group requires a minimum of two residents to run each week. The Wii will be located in a quiet area of the facility, and residents will play seated in a semi-circle to reduce the risk of falls.
The participants will also be involved in an onsite training session run by the researcher before the commencement of the intervention. Residents will be advised that the purpose of the intervention is to learn a fun, new activity with others.
The control group participants will be located in two different aged care facilities. A researcher will attend each aged care facility that agrees to participate. A presentation will be given to outline the research, and what it would involve for the residents. One week later, a researcher will approach interested residents on site. Residents will be assessed on their levels of depression, social support, sense of belonging, and self-reported mood at pre-intervention week 0 , post-intervention week 6 , and 2-month follow up week The primary outcomes to be assessed are reduction in depressive symptoms and improvements in self-reported mood, sense of belonging, and levels of social support.
Higher scores indicate higher levels of depressive symptomatology in an individual. Social support will be measured using the Social Provisions Scale [ 27 ]. The participants will indicate on a 4-point scale the extent to which each statement describes their current level of social support e. Responses range from strongly disagree to strongly agree. Cutrona and Russell [ 27 ] report coefficient alphas ranging between. To measure sense of belonging, a visual analogue scale will be utilised. The Sense of Belonging Visual Analogue Scale was developed to enable the item Sense of Belonging Instrument [ 28 ] to be reduced to a two item visual analogue scale for ease of use.
The Sense of Belonging Visual Analogue Scale measures the two theoretical concepts underlying the Sense of Belonging Instrument, these concepts are how much someone feels valued, and their fit with the surrounding environment. At each end of the line opposing statements are placed asking residents about feeling valued and feeling as though they fit in. Respondents will be asked to place a vertical line indicating the extent to which they endorsed the concepts on either extreme. The placement of the line will be measured in centimetres, and rounded to the closest centimetre.
Higher scores indicate greater levels of each concept. The validity of the scale has been established by Morris [ 29 ], scores have been correlated with scores obtained on the psychological state sub-scale of the Sense of Belonging Instrument [ 28 ]. The scale will be in the same format and scored in the same manner as the sense of belonging visual analogue scale. Higher scores indicate a better mood. Currently, there is no validity for data for the mood scale Fig.
Participants in the intervention group playing Wii with others will also be involved in a qualitative interval interaction analysis. Onsite observational data will be collected during video game playing sessions in week 1, 3, and 6. Verbatim written transcripts will be made of these sessions. The observational data collected will focus on the interaction between group members to ascertain the type of social interactions that occurs, and if there is an increase over the course of the intervention period.